In this post I am going to share some thinking about teaching that I learned along my journey as a teacher from three people. I future posts I’ll share thoughts about teaching from other people who I’ve met along the way. What everybody ought to know about teaching is a response to what Henry Giroux calls “critical pedagogy in dark times.” Education is dominated by conservative and neoliberal paradigms which has reduced teaching to skills, economic growth, job training, and transmission of information.
What everybody ought to know about teaching is NOT about tips for teaching, but more about the nature of education in a democratic society. As educators ought to be advocates for a critical pedagogy that, in the words of Giroux,
connect classroom knowledge to the experiences, histories, and resources that students bring to the classroom but also link such knowledge to the goal of furthering their capacities to be critical agents who are responsive to moral and political problems of their time and recognize the importance of organized collective struggles. (Giroux, Henry A. (2011-06-23). On Critical Pedagogy (Kindle Location 145). Continuum US. Kindle Edition.)
There are many people who influenced my teaching and professional work including Dr. Marlene Hapai, Dr. Joe Abruscato, Dr. Julie Wiesberg, Dr. Ted Colton, Dr. Frank Koontz, Mr. Francis Macy, Mr. Sergei Tolstikov, Dr. Marge Gardner. Each of them taught me what everybody ought to know about teaching. Mr. Bob Jaber, Mr. Ken Royal, and Dr. Carl Rogers are featured in this post.
I am going to start with Bob Jaber.
Bob Jaber was a high school chemistry teacher who taught in the Fulton County schools (Georgia) in the 1970s and 1980s. I first met him when he took one of my courses in the science education graduate program at Georgia State University. While at GSU he studied advanced graduate chemistry and science education.
Here is some of what I learned that everybody ought to know about teaching from Bob Jaber.
As well as scientist, Bob Jaber was also an artist. His work used mixed media to create textured art forms. One of the art forms that he perfected was using colorful carpet samples to design floors, walls, and create poster size wall hangings.
Like Jacob Bronowski, the British-Polish mathematician and scientist, Bob integrated science and human values in his high school chemistry classes. Like Bronowski, Bob Jaber believed that science can be part of our world, and can create the values that humanize our experience. I learned from Bob Jaber that values and attitudes should be as important as the content that we are teaching. Everyone should know this about teaching, yet, in the present day, we are breaking teaching down into dozens of components, and in doing so forget that there is something much more important about teaching. Teaching is something much more than the way it might look on the Danielson Framework for Teaching or Flanders Interaction Analysis. Teaching is about the whole thing on so many levels. It’s not about skills (although they are important to know), it not about lists of content spelled out in the standards, and it’s not about the tests that are given to students. It is harmony and holism in teaching, and to teachers like Bob Jaber, teaching is a journey of profound and enduring connections with students.
Here is some of what I learned that everybody ought to know about teaching from Ken Royal.
Two aspects of teaching jump out when I think about what I learned from this man. First is his willingness to take risks, and try new stuff. Second, Ken epitomized the experiential educator, who like Giroux believes that school should be a project intent on developing a meaningful life for all students.
His classroom was a model for the experiential science approach, and he was also a pioneer in the use of technology as a tool to enhance student learning in science. His students were involved in global conversations and research with students in at least three continents, and his students were posting results of their research using digital cameras and text at a time when the Web was in its infancy. His classroom was an environment where students were involved in active inquiry, and with the rapid development of technology in the 1990s, Ken was one of the leaders pioneering ways that this technology could be harnessed to help students get excited about science. He later became technology coördinator for the Brookfield School District, and then started writing as a freelancer about technology, and making presentations around the country. Scholastic saw one of his presentations, and hired him as senior editor in technology and teaching. You can follow Ken on his website at Royal Reports.
One of his most popular blog posts is Flipped, Blended, Disrupted Nonsense! It’s a must read.
While I was a graduate student at Ohio State University in the 1960s (yup, that’s right), my advisor, Dr. John Richardson, suggested that I read Carl Rogers’ book, On Becoming a Person. You can read between the lines, but I think he had something in mind for me. But later in my life, when I read what others have written about this book by Rogers–that it was revolutionary thinking–did I realize how significant Richardson’s recommendation was for me.
In 1969, the year that I finished my Ph.D. at Ohio State, Rogers published Freedom to Learn, the most important book published to date on humanistic education. The book became the guide that I used as a professor of science education at Georgia State University, where I worked from 1969-2003. It was a guide in the sense that it encouraged me to be experimental with my courses, and the programs that I developed, and working with others at GSU, had the gumption to swim upstream away from more traditional approaches to teaching and especially, teacher education.
Here is some of what I learned that everybody ought to know about teaching from Carl Rogers.
I learned so much from Rogers’ work, that I’ll only share some of the ideas that I think influenced the way that I designed courses, and programs at the University level, and in so doing encouraged K-12 teachers to consider Rogers’ ideas for their own classrooms.
One idea I want to share here is the notion of being willing to be experimental as a teacher, and to have the courage to try new ideas, and be willing to be open to the opinions and ideas of your students. In Rogers’ book, Freedom to Learn, Chapter Two is entitled “A Sixth Grade Teacher Experiments.” Rogers describes the despair and frustration that teacher Barbara J. Shield felt, so much so, that she tried a drastic experiment in her classroom by promoting an experiential type of learning in her classroom. Rogers tells us that Shield decided to change the way she was teaching which she described as teacher centered to an approach based on student-centered teaching–an unstructured or non-directive approach. What’s important about this chapter is not the particular approach that Shield unleashed in her class, but the attitude and philosophy underpinning her wish to change what she was doing, and try out something that was new (to her), risky, and took courage, and support.
In the summer of 1973 I designed a graduate seminar at GSU for teachers that was based on Rogers’ ideas in Freedom to Learn, but especially, Chapter 2. Teachers who took the course knew in advance that it was the intent of the course to encourage experimentation in their own classroom during the 1973-1974 school year. About 30 teachers signed up for the course. Our sessions were designed to explore a variety of pedagogics, and approaches to give the participants ideas to help them formulate their plans for the school year. Some of the teachers actually took the experience of Barbara Shield’s and reorganized the curriculum of their course (usually in science) along the non-directive, student-centered approach. Other participants delved into project based teaching, team teaching, collaborative and cooperative learning. All the teachers agreed to collect “data” on their own and their students attitudes and concepts learned, but also to sample student work, as well as student journals. In the summer of 1974, a second seminar was held at GSU (which met only for one week), where the teachers presented their work in a conference type of setting.
A second idea I want to share here that I learned that everybody ought to know about teaching comes from Rogers’ book On Becoming a Person. The same chapter also appears in his book, Freedom to Learn. The title of the chapter in each book is Personal Thoughts on Teaching and Learning (Rogers, Carl (2012-07-20). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Kindle Edition. The very short chapter is a talk he gave at Harvard University, April 1952 where he was asked to put on a demonstration of “student-centered teaching.” After taking some time painting, writing and photography in Mexico, he “sat down” and wrote a personal view of what his experiences had been with teaching and learning. He said this about what he wrote:
I may have been naïve, but I did not consider the material inflammatory. After all the conference members were knowledgeable, self-critical teachers, whose main common bond was an interest in the discussion method in the classroom. I met with the conference, I presented my views as written out below, taking only a very few moments, and threw the meeting open for discussion. I was hoping for a response, but I did not expect the tumult which followed. Feelings ran high. It seemed I was threatening their jobs, I was obviously saying things I didn’t mean, etc., etc. And occasionally a quiet voice of appreciation arose from
Rogers, Carl (2012-07-20). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy (Kindle Locations 4256-4260). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Kindle Edition.
What he said influenced me throughout my entire career as a science teacher educator, in my work as a seminar leader for the Bureau of Education and Research, and in my work with colleagues in other nations through the Global Thinking Project. Here is just an excerpt of what Rogers said in 1952 in Boston at Harvard:
a. I may as well start with this one in view of the purposes of this conference. My experience has been that I cannot teach another person how to teach. To attempt it is for me, in the long run, futile.
b. It seems to me that anything that can be taught to another is relatively inconsequential, and has little or no significant influence on behavior. That sounds so ridiculous I can’t help but question it at the same time that I present it.
c. I realize increasingly that I can only interested in learnings which significantly influence behavior. Quite possibly this is simply a personal idiosyncrasy.
d. I have come to feel that the only learning which significantly influences behavior is self-discovered, self-appropriated learning.
e. Such self-discovered learning, truth that has been personally appropriated and assimilated in experience, cannot be directly communicated to another.
Rogers, Carl (2012-07-20). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy (Kindle Locations 4283-4290). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Kindle Edition.
I took what Rogers said seriously, and to some extent acted on it while I was at GSU. I did away with tests in my courses, because I agreed with Rogers that most of what we test is inconsequential, and as a result there was no reason for tests. I couldn’t do away with grades, but I could create different systems in which grading was student-centered. Here is what I did in nearly all my courses:
All class sessions were experiential encounters that were designed as informally as possible. On the first day of class I arranged with the on campus food caterers to have coffee, juice, fruit and cookies delivered to my classroom just before class began. Nearly all my students were full-time teachers, and after a full day of teaching, food and drink seemed to be the ticket. In some courses, we took two weeks to work out the curriculum with the students. In other courses, students were encouraged to try any of the activities that were done in class back in their elementary, middle or high school. If special materials were required, such as ozone monitoring strips, or chemical powders, they were provided.
But in nearly all the courses, the only requirements that were expected were drawn from Rogers’ chapter on his way of facilitating a class as outlined in Freedom to Learn. As Rogers points out, every instructor has her own style of facilitating the learning of her students. And I also agreed that there is not one way of achieving this. The requirements that I outline here, worked for me, and my students. This is what I gave the students on the first day of class in the form of a handout.
What would you like to add about What Everybody Ought to Know About Teaching? Who influenced you, and what were the consequences in your professional work?