According to the Foundation Center, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, and the Eli & Edythe Broad Foundation are ranked 1, 13, and 38 respectively on the top 100 U.S. foundations by total giving. The total assets of these three foundations as of April 2014 was $37 billion for the Gates Foundation, $1.9 billion for the Walton Foundation, and $1.6 billion for the Broad Foundation.
The total grant making in 2012 for these organizations was:
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation $3.18 billion
The Walton Family Foundation $423 million
The Eli & Edythe Broad Foundation $153 million
If you count up the number of people who call the shots in these three foundations, here’s the math:
These three foundations are identified as the “Big Three Foundations” by Mercedes K. Schneider in her new book, A Chronicle of Echoes: Who’s Who in the Implosion of American Public Education (Public Library). Dr. Schneider explores in-depth how Gates, Walton and Broad grant billions of dollars to organizations that meet their personal views of what education should be in America.
Diane Ravitch assigns the “big three” to the Billionaire Boys Club. No matter how you look at it, these organizations’ money and political influence rudder American education reform toward the privatization of public education, and Common Core State Standards-High-Stakes Assessments accountability.
To be sure, there are many other Foundations that give grants to a variety of organizations whose goals merge with the Big Three, but it is the Big Three that dominate the agenda of education reform today.
Education for the People, by the People
In this blog post, I wonder if the deep pockets of just 10 people can be consistent with the ideals of public education. Most of you know that Diane Ravitch published her recent book, Reign of Error: The Hoax of the Privatization Movement and the Danger to America’s Public Schools (Public Library). On one of the end pages of her book she included a 1785 quote by President John Adams that I believe exposes the crux of the problem caused by the influx of money and influence from people such as the Gates, Waltons and Broads. Adams is quoted as saying this:
The whole people must take upon themselves the education of the whole people and be willing to bear the expense of it. There should not be a district of one mile square, without a school in it, not founded by a charitable individual, but maintained at the public expense of the people themselves.
Adams would be shocked by the “charitable” behavior these 10 people.
The funded organizations that are identified on the Big Three websites are pawn’s or infantry sent into schools with lots of money, political influence, and carefully laid plans to carry out the aims of the Big Three. Although there are differences and some overlap among those who receive their marching orders from the Big Three, it becomes obvious what the end game is when you learn who is funded. Let’s take a look at the Big Three.
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
In an earlier post (Why Bill Gates Defends the Common Core), I reported that more than 1800 “college-ready” projects have been funded by the Gates Foundation over the past five years. Some organizations have been awarded multiple grants, and in some cases, these amounts exceeded $60 million. In the world of Charter Schools, Gates has awarded more than $279 million. In teacher education, Gates has given millions to Teach for America and the New Teacher Project, yet very little in funding to improve teacher education in American universities. In the research I’ve done analyzing the Gates Awarded Grants, it can be estimated that more than $2.3 billion has been allocated to the “college-ready” category.
If you look at the names of organizations that receive Gates awards, you soon discover how education is being shaped: charter schools, temp teacher training, common standards, venture capitalism, and market-based reforms. Figure 1 identifies some of the organizations that have received grants, as well as the amount they garnered over the past five years.
Here the grant focal points for the Gates Foundation.
When I searched the Awarded Grants site at the Gates Foundation for “charter schools” it returned 134 hits. For example in 2014, the Pacific Charter School Development, Inc. received an award totaling $3,998,633. They joined a long list of recipients whose total amount came to $279,428,324 (see Figure 1). Gates gives more to support charters than does Walton and Broad combined.
Without question, the Gates Foundation leads all organizations in the U.S. to develop and implant a common set of standards in public schools. Achieve, Inc., the organization that wrote the Common Core State Standards in Math and Language Arts, and the Next Generation Science Standards received more than $36 million from Gates. But this is only a tip of the common core iceberg. To find out the extent of the funding for the common core is not as straightforward as you might think.
Achieve is part of a network of organizations that have spearheaded the drive to set up a common core of subjects in American schools that share the same set of performances for all students. As you can see in Table 1, the Gates Foundation funds projects in five program areas. You will find common core projects in the US Program, Global Policy & Advocacy and other program areas. For example, the New Schools Venture Fund has received more than $60 million from the Gates Foundation. As a venture capitalist organization, “their investors are betting hundreds of millions on the digital revolution in the classroom. (NewSchools Venture Fund website, extracted, May 29, 2014).”
One of the grants NewSchools received from Gates was for more than $10 million “to support the successful implementation of the Common Core State Standards and related assessments through comprehensive and targeted communications and advocacy in key states and the District of Columbia” (Gates Foundation Website, extracted May 29, 2014).
Implementing common core standards is a cornerstone of the Gates Foundation efforts to change American education.
Teacher training is supported by the Gates Foundation through its grants to Teach for America (TFA) and The New Teacher Project (TNTP). Based on my experience and research with alternative certification programs, these programs are at simply alternative ways to get people into classrooms, even while lacking profession teaching qualifications.
Is there is a similar plan to train élite college students in six weeks in medicine for the Doctor for America (DFA) program who will be hired for two years as paid doctors in local hospitals and clinics where they will practice medicine, even though they are uncertified? Medical and teaching projects, like these, set up a pipeline of inexperienced and uncertified college graduates to teach in American school, and bolster the over stretched medical profession. Students in these programs need to commit two years, and then move up or out of the system.
TNTP is a step-child of TFA having been founded by Michelle Rhee, who was a TFA “graduate.” TFA has net assets of $419,098,314 for fiscal year 2012. It receives 76% of its money from grants and gifts, and 22.3% from government grants.
In a separate investigation of TFA’s and TNTP’s role in the Race to the Top (RT3), I looked at Georgia’s RT3 Program and discovered that these organizations were receiving $15.6 million and $9.1 million to supply uncertified teachers in the greater Atlanta area, where there is no shortage of certified teachers.
The language used to describe this effort is tied up in the notion of increasing the pipeline of effective educators.
From the RT3 budget is this statement:
Increase the pipeline of effective teachers through partnership with Teach for America in Atlanta Public Schools, Clayton County, DeKalb County and Gwinnett with the first class of new TFA recruits beginning in the school year 2011-2012. Funding included in section E project 24: $15,6000,000).
A separate line in the budget points to the same kind of arrangement with The New Teacher Project, which will provide new teachers in Savannah, Augusta, and Southwest Georgia, for $7,568,395 million.
Although these two organization provide a small share of teachers to American public schools, that the Gates Foundation and the Race to Top programs support them is troubling. There is already legislation that supports redefining a certified teacher that includes teachers that have received minimal education, and no classroom experience. In areas where experienced teachers are clearly more successful, Gates and even the U.S. Department of Education (ED) ignores the research on teacher effectiveness.
What about the Medical program? DFA doesn’t exist, does it? But I wonder if such a program would be accepted by the medical profession and the local community?
The Gates Foundation in its funded Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) theorized that it was going to be easy to identify effective teaching, especially with the use of video tapes and student test scores. As John Thompson pointed out on Anthony Cody’s Living in Dialogue website over on Education Week,
The MET is a $45 million component of the “teacher quality” movement which studies test scores, teacher observations, and student survey data to isolate the elements of effective teaching. That’s great. But the MET’s assumptions about the outcomes they anticipated have been the basis for Arne Duncan’s test-driven policies — which require test scores to be a “significant part” of teacher evaluations in order for states to receive waivers for NCLB. Then, as evidence was gathered, preliminary reports noted problems with using test score growth for evaluations. The MET has continued to affirm the need for value-added (VAM) as a necessary component of their unified system of using improved instruction to drive reform, even as it reported disappointing findings.
Even though researchers have shown (using Gates Foundation data from the MET Study) that there are very low correlations between teachers instruction with state standards and state and alternative assessments, policy makers ignore such data and believe that teachers should be evaluated using student test scores. This study reported there is no evidence of relationships curriculum alignment and composite measures of teacher effectiveness. And they reported that lack of relationship between Danielson’s Framework of Teaching (used to measure teacher classroom behavior), Tripod (student surveys) to VAM scores.
One of the groups that Gates funds is the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ). Since 2009, NCTQ has received more than $11 million in grants. The name of this organization is an oxymoron, yet with millions in funding from Gates, NCTQ publishes biased reports on teacher effectiveness and teacher education. In an earlier post I showed that NCTQ reporting is nothing short of junk science, yet here we have the billionaire funding such nonsense.
And then the Colorado Legacy Foundation has received more than $20 million to carry out the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) & pursue teacher evaluation systems using student test score growth.
The Walton Family Foundation
The Walton Family Foundation made grants totaling $423 million in 2013. According to the Walton Family Foundation website, its purpose in funding is to “infuse competitive pressure into America’s K-12 education system by increasing the quantity and quality of school choices available to parents, especially in low-income communities.”
The Walton Family Foundation funds school projects that shape public policy, lead to the creation of “quality schools,” and improve existing schools. The California Charter Schools Association and the Alliance for School Choice were the top two recipients of grants from Walton in 2013. Coming in third and fourth was The New Teacher Project and Teach for America.
The focus of funding of the Walton Foundation is school choice and parental choice (parent trigger) as policies supporting charter schools.
The Eli & Edythe Broad Foundation
The Broad funding was $153 million in 2013. The Broad Foundation, just like Gates and Walton accuses public schools of being in distress. They all use the same statistics to claim that American students are not able to compete for jobs in a global market, and that corporations can’t find the “workers” who possess the skills needed to fill their positions. The Broad Foundation highlights the value of competition by the giving of various “Broad Prizes.” The Broad Prize, and Broad Prize for Public Charters is an annual competitions among applicants.
Each of these strategies is very much like the model used by Teach for America and The New Teacher Project. These are part-time training programs that train college graduates in five weeks to be full-time teachers.
The Broad programs trains people to be principals and superintendents, who according to many writers, tend to be confrontative with teachers and their unions, and have no problem in closing schools, and then turning around and opening schools managed by charter companies.
The Broad Foundation funds in more than fifty organizations in four larger categories as listed below. I’ve also included two funded projects or organizations representative of each grouping.
- Federal and State Policy: Education Reform Now!, Foundation for Excellence in Education
- Teaching and Learning: National Council on Teacher Quality, Rocketship Education
- Leadership: Broad Center for the Management of School Systems, Kipp Foundation
- Institutions: Charter School Growth Fund, New Schools Venture Fund